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Beef   Good beef is elastic so that if it be pressed with the finger no impression will remain. If the meat be in poor condition the lean part will usually be of a dark color and inelastic.

Mutton   The lean part of good mutton is of a dark, bright crimson red; the fat is firm and white. The lean part of bad mutton is of a brownish color with a bad smell; there is little fat and it is flabby and yellowish.

Pork   The fat part of pork should be firm and white; the lean should be of a fine grain and the skin cool and thin. Should the fat contain kernels the pork should be avoided for the pig was diseased when killed. Pork should not be kept more than a day or two before it is cooked for it will not keep long without salting. Great care should be exercised that pork be thoroughly cooked or there will be danger of disease.

Veal   Veal will spoil quickly and should not be kept more than two days in summer nor four in winter.

Turkeys   A young cock-turkey has smooth, black legs with short spurs. Sometimes dealers cut and scrape the spurs of old turkeys so as to deceive one, hence they should be carefully examined. The beak of an old turkey is hard while that of a young bird is somewhat soft. The legs of an old hen-turkey are red and rough. If the turkey is in poor condition the eyes will be dim and sunken and the feet dry and stiff, while if it be in good condition the eyes will be bright and full and the feet soft and pliable.

Fowls   Select a fat fowl for any purpose. The skin should be transparent and if the bird is young and tender the skin under the wing or leg may be easily torn. A young cock will have short spurs. A fine bird will have a full breast and a smooth comb.

Ducks   If the duck has been recently killed the feet and legs will be soft and pliable but if it be stale they will be dry and stiff. Freshness of the eyes is a good indication. An old duck will generally be thin and lean while a young bird is generally plump. The tame duck has rather large feet that are of a dusky yellow while the feet of the wild duck are smaller and of a reddish color.

Geese   The feet and beak of an old goose will generally be be red and bristly, while those of a young goose will be yellow with few bristles. When stale the feet and legs are dry and stiff; when fresh they are pliable and soft. The breast of a young bird, as with all poultry in good condition, is plump and the flesh whiter than that of old birds.



Salt meats and meats used for soup should be put to cook in cold water; but otherwise, fresh meat should be put on in boiling water. Cold water extracts the juice while hot water quickly cooks the outer surface of the meat and so retains the juices. Put a piece of red pepper in the water to prevent the odor which arises from boiling meat and turn the meat frequently that it may cook evenly on all sides. Carefully remove all scum as it arises. The meat should be kept boiling constantly but very gently. Allow twenty minutes for each pound of meat.

When roasting meat in the oven it should be frequently basted, that is, the juices should be dipped and poured over it with a spoon. Keep the fire at a uniform heat.

In broiling, have the gridiron hot before putting on the meat. Turn it over as soon as it sears.

Do not salt meat until it is nearly done as salt extracts the juices. The juices of meat are also extracted by allowing them to remain wrapped in paper when purchased. The meat should be immediately unwrapped.

In cooking an old fowl or a tough piece of meat, add a pinch of soda or a spoonful of vinegar to the water in which they are boiled to aid in making them tender.

Frozen meats should be laid in cold water to thaw out shortly before using.

When roasting meat, use either tripods or clean pieces of wood to keep it out of the juices. Keep a pan of water in the oven to prevent scorching.

In warm weather mutton, veal and pork may be kept fresh for several weeks by laying them in sour milk. The meat should be entirely covered and the milk changed when mold appears. Wash the meat in cold water before using.

Salt pork may be freshened by soaking it over night in sweet milk and water. Nice gravy is made by adding the meat gravy to some flour and butter which have been rubbed together and browned in the skillet.

The garnishes for meat are slices of lemon, parsley, sliced beets, sliced carrots and currant jelly. 


1.Baked Veal Chops or Cutlet   Put in a roasting pan and season with pepper and salt, dust heavily with flour and put small pieces of butter on top. Then cover with water and bake for one hour.

2.Breaded Ham   Cut 1 pound of ham in slices 1/4 inch thick; lay in hot water for 30 minutes, drain and wipe dry, dip in beaten egg, then in rolled bread crumbs and broil.

3.Creamed Beef   Melt a lump of butter the size of an egg in a frying pan, then add cold roast beef cut in thin slices or chipped dried beef and fry to a nice brown, then add a tablespoonful of flour and stir well; last of all add enough water or milk to make a nice cream; serve with or without toast as you like.

4.Dressing for Stuffing Meats   Soak a loaf of baker’s bread in cold water and squeeze as dry as possible. Cut a large onion up fine and mix with the bread and fry a light brown in butter, with plenty of salt and pepper and then add 2 well-beaten eggs and a little sage if desired.

5.Veal Loaf Three pounds veal, 3 eggs, 1/2 pound ham, 1 cup cracker crumbs, 1/2 cup milk, butter the size of an egg, pepper and salt, a little water in the pan at first. Bake 3/4 of an hour or longer.

6.Beefsteak Roll Prepare a bread dressing such as you use for chicken ; pound a round steak a little but not very hard; spread the dressing over it; lap over the ends; roll the steak up tightly and tie; spread 2 spoonfuls of butter over it; put a little water in the pan, lay steak in and bake, basting often. In a brisk oven it will bake in 30 minutes. Make a brown gravy and serve hot, or it is nice when sliced cold.

7.Chicken Tamales (A Mexican Dish) Mix 1 pint each of finely ground cooked chicken and finely ground fresh boiled ham; cut 2 large red peppers in halves, remove seeds, and place in sauce pan with boiling water and cook 5 minutes; remove, chop fine and add them to the meat; season with 1/2 teaspoonful of salt and sauce from peppers. Place a sauce pan containing a cupful of chicken broth over the fire. Mix 4 tablespoonfuls corn meal with cold water; add it slowly to boiling broth ; add 1/2 teaspoonful butter ; cook and stir till thick ; season with salt to taste. Put some dried corn husks in warm water to soak for 30 minutes, remove, cut off even sizes, spread each out on a dish. Cover with a thin layer of meal paste ; put a tablespoonful of the meat in the center lengthwise; fold the husk around it; twist the ends and tie. Place in a steamer and steam for an hour and a half or cover with chicken broth and cook one hour. Any kind of meat may be used instead of chicken.

8.Braised Beef Cut a round steak into suitable pieces for serving. Dip these in salt water, then in bread or cracker crumbs. Fry these pieces just long enough to brown nicely, in a buttered pan. Put into a bake pan or dish and put in enough water to make the pan half full. Bake 90 minutes in a moderate oven.

9.Boiled Ham Changing the water once or twice, soak the ham for 24 hours. Put on to cook in boiling water with a little sage and a cup of vinegar. When very tender, remove the skin and black outside, sprinkle the fat side with sugar and bread crumbs, and brown in the oven

10. Ham Pattie Chop fine some pieces of cold ham. One-half dozen boiled eggs, chopped and seasoned with salt and pepper. Put in a baking dish a layer of ham, then a layer of eggs, and then the sauce until dish is full. Sauce : Mix together 1 tablespoonful of flour and 1 tablespoonful of butter and stir this into a cup of sweet milk. Over the top layer of pattie, pour this sauce and spread with bread crumbs. Bake until a nice brown.

11.Tasse Ham Cut six hard boiled eggs in halves, crosswise; remove yolks; place cups thus made around edge of platter. While eggs are boiling, cook 1/3 cup of fine bread crumbs in 1/3 cup of milk to a smooth paste; add 1 cup of chopped ham, cooked, 1 egg slightly beaten, 1/2 teaspoonful mustard; make into balls, set one in each half egg cup. White Sauce: Two tablespoonfuls each of butter and flour, 1 cup of milk and 1 teaspoonful of salt. Turn this into center of platter, sift yolks over it and set dish in oven until eggs are hot. Garnish with parsley. You can use mushrooms in the white sauce if so desired.

12.Deviled Ham Rolls Roll thin some light rich pastry and cut into four-inch squares; spread upon each square a spoonful of deviled ham, leaving about 1/2 inch around the edge uncovered. Moisten the edges with cold water; roll each sheet of ham and pastry compactly, pressing the edges together. Brush with white of egg and bake. This is nice with a salad course.

13.Stuffed Leg of Pork Make deep incisions in the meat; mash fine a few boiled potatoes; add a chopped onion, cayenne pepper, salt and a little sage. Mix a piece of butter with this and fill the incisions; pull the skin down, and skewer over to keep the dressing from falling out. Roast slowly; when the meat is done pour the gravy into a pan, take off the fat and add a little brown flour; as soon as it boils up once , remove from the fire; serve with cranberry sauce.

14.Veal with Oysters Cut one pound of select veal into squares about the size of the oysters; fry nice and brown; when done add enough butter to make sufficient gravy and season. Pour over this 1 quart of oysters, well cleaned and drained, with 2 tablespoonfuls of flour stirred all through the oysters; pepper and salt; cover and let steam until the oysters begin to curl and the gravy is thickened.

15.Curry Chicken Cut up a chicken; slice an onion and fry in the skillet with a generous piece of butter; add a teaspoonful of curry powder. Put in chicken and fry just long enough to absorb the onion flavor. Grate 1 coconut and pour boiling water over it; strain through cheese cloth, squeezing tight; add the chicken to coconut water; cook until meat drops from bones. If water boils away add more salt the last thing, add a little flour and more curry powder if desired. Serve with hot boiled rice.

16.Chicken Sauteing Melt 2 tablespoonfuls of butter in pan with a small chopped onion; do not let it brown, put into this a tender chicken cut into small pieces; season with salt and pepper. Let cook for 20 minutes, turning often; then dredge with flour, stir around well and add a scant pint of stock or water–boiling. Cover and place on the back part of the stove where it will simmer gently until done. Remove all grease from gravy and add a cup of cream; cook for 2 or 3 minutes and pour over chicken.

17.Chicken Pie Take a good sized chicken that is neither too fat nor too old; cut it up and remove all extra fat; wash it well and cook until tender, keeping the fat skimmed from the top of the kettle. Put the extra fat in a skillet and place on the back of the stove where it can slowly cook until all grease is extracted and when cold it may be used with other shortening to make the crust for the pie. The crust may be made in the usual way, lining the pan with an under crust; then add the chicken and 4 sliced potatoes; then the broth made into a nice gravy; put the top crust on and bake until it is a nice brown.

18.Cleveland Chicken Cut up a cooked chicken fine, a few potatoes cut in squares and bread crumbs; put on the stove 1 cup of milk, 1 tablespoonful of butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour, pepper, salt and a little parsley; mix with the other, sprinkle bread crumbs over the top and bake fifteen minutes.

19.Old Point Comfort Chicken Terrapin Boil a chicken until tender;remove bones; thicken the broth with a lump of butter rubbed in flour and then put the meat of the chicken back on the stove; add 1/3 pound of butter, a dozen mushrooms, a little summer savory, cayenne pepper and salt. Boil and stir until tender; then add yolks of 3 hard boiled eggs, chopped fine; then sweet cream and serve hot.

20.Chicken Croquettes Boil a cup of milk with a lump of butter as large as an egg and a tablespoonful of flour; when cool add pepper and salt, a bit of minced onion, 1 cup of bread crumbs and 1 pint of finely chopped chicken; lastly, beat 2 eggs and work in, form in balls, roll in eggs and cracker crumbs and fry.

21.Chicken Cutlets Rub together 2 tablespoonfuls of flour and 1 of butter; add to them 1/2 pint of stock; stir constantly until boiling and then the yolks of 2 eggs. Take from the fire and add 1 pint of cold chopped chicken, a tablespoonful of parsley, 1 a teaspoonful of salt, a little pepper and a grating of nutmeg. Mix and put aside to cool; when cold form into the shape of cutlets, dip in eggs and crumbs and fry. Turkey can be used the same way.

22.Chicken and Macaroni In a baking pan arrange layers of bits of chicken, macaroni and bread crumbs, the crumbs on top; season with salt, pepper and butter. Pour over a dressing made of 2 cups of stock, 1/2 cup of cream and flour to thicken ; bake 45 minutes.


1.Pheasants, Partridges, Quails, Etc. These are nice in flour and laid in a deep dish containing 1/2 cup of drippings; add pepper and salt and lay nice slices of ham or bacon over the top. When done remove the ham and make a dressing of 1/2 pint of cream and a dozen chopped oysters, to be added just before serving.

2.A Delicious Rabbit Fry Cut the rabbit in pieces and quickly wash in cold water. Do not soak it. Have frying pan very hot; then when you have seasoned the meat, roll it in flour and place in a pan, into which drop a tablespoonful of butter and one of lard. Cover with a pan and let the rabbit be very well done before you turn it over to brown the other side. A rabbit fried in this manner will smell almost as nice as it will taste.

3.Rabbit Stew Cut up the rabbit, cover with cold water and put over the fire; add a teaspoonful of salt and boil until tender. Have ready hot biscuits broken open and laid on a platter and on each place a piece of the rabbit. Thicken the gravy with 2 tablespoonfuls of flour wet smoothly in a little milk; let it boil a minute, then add a cup of milk or cream and stir well. Pour this over the rabbit and biscuit and serve at once.

4.Hasenpfeffer After the rabbit has been in water for several hours, rinse with clear water. Boil until tender in water containing an onion in which are stuck about a dozen cloves. When tender take from liquor, roll in flour and fry brown in skillet, using equal quantities of butter and lard; just before removing from skillet, sprinkle over a little cinnamon and about 1 tablespoonful of vinegar (more or less to suit taste); cook closely; let smother for a few minutes; remove rabbit; put flour in skillet and brown in remaining grease; add liquor in which the rabbit was cooked to make a nice gravy; pour over rabbit.


In selecting fish see that the eyes are full and not dull and sunken. The flesh should firm and hard to the touch and should rise at once to the pressure of the finger.

The earthy or muddy taste may be removed by soaking in salt water shortly before using. The skin may be readily removed by pouring boiling water over it and letting it stand a few minutes. Lemon juice whitens fish.

Fish should be cooked the day they are bought. Fresh mackerel, especially, spoil very quickly.

In frying fish, put it into very hot lard and turn as soon as browned on one side.

When browned on both sides move the skillet to the back part of the stove, cover and let cook slowly. Use plenty of lard but no butter. Garnishes are parsley, sliced beets, lemon, lettuce and hard-boiled eggs.

1.Baked White Fish Fill the fish with a stuffing of fine bread crumbs and a little butter; then sew up the fish, sprinkle with butter, salt and pepper. Bake an hour and serve with egg sauce or parsley sauce.

2.Boiled Fresh Fish Tie the fish up in a cloth and plunge into salted boiling water. Boil very slowly, allowing eight minutes to the pound. When about half done add a little lemon juice or vinegar. When done, drain, dish carefully and pour drawn butter over it.

3.Clam Stew Drain off and strain the liquor from 25 clams; cut them up and place with the strained liquor in a stew kettle. Cut into small pieces 5 or 6 potatoes and a small onion; add these to the clams with a half cup of milk, butter the size of an egg, salt and pepper to taste. Stew until done; thicken with gravy and serve hot.

4.Baked Codfish Three eggs beaten separately, 1 pint of milk, 1 cup of shredded codfish; thicken milk as thick as for cream toast; put the yolks of eggs in while milk and fish are hot; add whites last. Bake 20 minutes.

5. Fish a–la–Creme One pint of cold cooked fish, picked in fine pieces; 1 pint of milk, yolks of 2 eggs, 1 small piece of onion, 1 sprig of parsley, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, 1 tablespoonful of butter. Put milk on to boil in a double boiler ; add to it onions and parsley; rub the butter and flour together and stir into the boiling milk; cook 2 minutes; add the well-beaten yolks of 2 eggs; take from the fire and strain; add pepper and salt to taste. Put a layer of this same in a buttered baking dish, then a layer of fish, another of the same, and so on, having the last layer of the same; sprinkle the top lightly with bread crumbs and put in the oven until a nice brown.

6.Baked Pickerel Cleanse the fish thoroughly in salt water; split so it will lie flat in the pan; sprinkle with pepper, salt and bits of butter; pour into the pan enough water to keep from burning and bake about 45 minutes. Make a sauce in the proportion of a tablespoonful of flour, a tablespoonful of butter, and half a pint of milk or water; when boiled until smooth, stir in a tablespoonful of lemon juice and serve very hot.

7.Lobster a la Newburg Two pounds of lobster, yolk of 1 egg, 1 tablespoonful of butter, 1/2 pint of cream, small wine-glass of sherry, a very little water. Stew lobster slowly with the butter and water for 15 minutes; stir egg, cream and part of the wine and mix with the lobster and stir 5 minutes. Add remainder of the wine just before serving.

8.Oyster Dressing One pint of oysters. Take the giblets of a chicken boiled until tender; crumb up a loaf of stale bread; heat 1 cup of milk boiling hot; pour the hot milk and water from the giblets over the bread; season with salt, pepper and sage. Stir in with a spoon the oysters and 1 egg well beaten. This amount is enough to stuff one chicken.

9.Oyster Cocktails For one person, take four to six nice large oysters.

Sauce: one tablespoonful of horseradish, 2 or 3 tablespoonfuls of tomato catsup, a pinch of salt, also of Hungarian paprika, dash of tobasco sauce, a few drops of vinegar, also a few drops of lemon juice. Mix thoroughly and pour over the oysters. If oysters are served on the half shell, sauce is served in sherbert glass, in middle of plate, surrounded by the shells.

10.Curried Oysters Drain the liquor from a quart of oysters and put it in a sauce pan; add 1/2 cup of butter, 1 tablespoonful of curry powder, 2 tablespoonfuls of flour, well mixed; let boil; add oysters and a little salt; boil up and serve.

11.Oyster Omelet Add half a dozen eggs well beaten very light to 1/2 cup of cream; season with salt and pepper and pour into a frying pan with a tablespoonful of butter; drop in a dozen large oysters cut in halves or chopped fine with parsley and fry until light brown; double it over and serve immediately.

12.Steamed Oysters Wash and drain a quart of select oysters; put them in a pan and place in steamer over boiling water; cover and steam until oysters are plump with edges ruffled; place in heated dish with butter, salt and pepper and serve.

13.Salmon Loaf Beat 2 eggs, add 1 cup of bread crumbs, 2 tablespoonfuls of melted butter and the fish contained in a pound can of salmon, saving the liquor. Add pepper and salt to taste. Mix and steam in a buttered dish 1 hour.

Sauce: One egg beaten lightly, 2 tablespoonfuls of melted butter and 1 tablespoonful of cornstarch; after mixing stir in 1 cup scalding milk, cook a moment and add the liquor; pour this over the fish and serve.

14.Turbot Boil a bass or white fish and pick it pieces; place it in a baking dish; pour over it a pint of milk, 2 eggs, 2 tablespoonfuls of butter, 1 tablespoonful of flour; season lightly; sprinkle cracker crumbs over the top and bake 20 minutes.

15.Pigs in Blanket Season large oyster with pepper; cut very thin slices of bacon and wrap around the oyster and fasten with a toothpick; fry until the bacon is crisp and brown. No salt will be needed as the bacon contains salt enough.

16.Salmon Balls One can of salmon free from bones and skin; 3 cold boiled potatoes, chopped fine; 1 egg, beaten and mixed with salmon and potato; salt and pepper; make into little cakes and roll in corn meal or cracker crumbs; fry in hot lard.

17.Fried Oysters Drain oysters, dip them in cracker meal, then in well beaten eggs, then again in cracker meal; then fry a nice brown in hot lard.

18.Salmon Chops Take the salmon from one can, remove the skin and bones and mash with a silver fork; put together 2 level teaspoonfuls each of butter and flour, 1/2 teaspoonful of salt and a dash of cayenne; add the fish, a tablespoonful of lemon juice and 1 teaspoonful of chopped parsley. When cold form into chops, dip in egg and bread crumbs, put a piece of macaroni in the end for a bone and form in shape.

19.Halibut Steak Wash and dry 2 halibut steaks; butter a fish pan, lay thin slices of salt pork on it, place the steak on this, pour lemon juice over it and dust with salt and pepper; dip 1/2 pint pint of oysters in melted butter, then in crumbs and place on fish. Put the second steak over the oysters and season as before, laying thin slices of pork on top. Bake 30 to 40 minutes, basting often with juice from the pan and lastly butter. Remove the pork from the top, cover with buttered crumbs, brown and serve.

20.Creamed Fish For 2 cups of cold fish or canned salmon flaked fine, make a cream sauce with a tablespoonful of butter and a tablespoonful flour beaten together with 1/4 teaspoonful of salt and a bit of red pepper. Pour a cup of milk on this and stir over the fire until it thickens; add the fish with a tablespoonful of chopped parsley; pour into a buttered dish and cover with bread or cracker crumbs and bake a light brown.

21.Codfish Balls Pick apart one cup of fish and put it in a saucepan with one pint of raw cut up potatoes; cover with cold water and boil until potatoes are done; drain well. Wash and stir until light; season with pepper and a teaspoonful of butter. Stir in one egg, well beaten; shape with a tablespoon and fry in smoking hot lard.

22.Hollandaise Sauce Beat 1/2 cup of butter until creamy, add yolks of 4 eggs one at a time and beat until blended. Add 1/4 teaspoonful of salt, the juice of 1 lemon and a dash of cayenne. Beat until smooth, add 1/3 cup of milk or stock and cook until thickened.

23.Escalloped Oysters One quart of oysters, 1 quart of rolled crackers or bread crumbs; put into a deep dish, putting alternate layers of oysters and crackers and small pieces of butter; season with pepper and salt. When dish is full, cover with milk. Bake 30 minutes.

24.Frizzled Oysters Dry a quart of oysters on a napkin, put butter in frying pan, when very hot put in oysters, season with pepper and salt; serve hot.

25.Baked Shad Make a stuffing of bread crumbs, pepper, salt, butter and parsley and mix this with the beaten yolks of 3 eggs and enough milk to moisten; fill fish and sew or fasten a string around it. Pour over it a little water and some butter and bake as a fowl; an hour or more is required to bake it. Boil up the gravy in which the fish was baked, put in a teaspoonful each of flour, catsup and lemon juice. Pour on as a dressing. To bake salmon, omit stuffing.

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1. Sweet Potato Croquettes Work 1 tablespoonful of butter, pepper and salt to taste, into 1 pint of hot mashed sweet potatoes. When cold mould into shape, dip in egg then in crumbs and fry.

2.Oyster and Veal Croquettes Two cups finely chopped veal, 1 pint raw oysters chopped fine, 2 tablespoonfuls butter, yolks of 4 eggs, 6 tablespoonfuls powdered crackers and 2 teaspoonfuls onion juice. Soak the crackers in the oyster liquor; soften butter and mix all ingredients. Shape and dip in egg and cracker crumbs and fry.

3.Potato Croquettes To a pint of hot mashed potatoes, add 1 tablespoonful of butter, the yolk of one egg, salt and pepper, a little onion juice and a little parsley. Cook all together and then cool and make into balls and fry in hot lard.