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(All Kinds.)

When canning fruit see that the cans and elastics are perfect and that the tops fit properly. Put the cans and covers into a kettle of water and bring slowly to the boiling point. Dipping the elastics into the boiling water will be sufficient to sterilize them. Set the cans in a pan on the stove and fill to overflowing with the fruit which should be boiling hot. Put the top on quickly and screw it down tightly. As the fruit cools the tops should be screwed down again and again to keep tight. It is best to use glass cans. To test whether they are air tightturn them upside down as soon as they are filled. The juice will ooze out if they are not air tight. Each can should be wrapped with paper to exclude the light and then set in a dark place that is cool but dry. The cans should be examined two or three days after filling, and if syrup leaks out from the rim the fruit should be recooked and used for jam or jelly.

(All Kinds)

Preserves must be made with the greatest care. As soon as pared, peaches, pears, apples and quinces should be placed in cold water to keep them from turning dark. Many fruits, such as pears, quinces, citrons, watermelon rinds, cherries, currants, etc., harden when put at first into a thick syrup. To prevent this they should be cooked first in water of thin syrup and the rest of the sugar added later. Apples, peaches, plums, tomatoes and strawberries are likely to become too soft in cooking. It is a good plan to pour the hot syrup over these fruits or to put the sugar over them and let them stand several hours. Either method extracts the juice and hardens the fruit.

Preserves should boil gently to avoid burning and to let the sugar penetrate the fruit. As a general rule, from three-fourths to a pound of either loaf or granulated sugar is used for each pound of fruit. Put sugar and water over the fire in a porcelain kettle. Beat lightly the white of an egg with two tablespoonfuls of water and add to the syrup just before it boils. As it begins to boil the scum should be carefully removed.


Simmer until the preserves are clear, then take out each piece with a skimmer and put at once into the jars. Stew the syrup until it "ropes" from the spoon skimming off the scum which arises; then pour the syrup over the fruit in the jars and seal. When preserving apples or peaches it is an improvement to add a few slices of lemon or orange. To keep preserves from sugaring add a little tartaric when cooked.


Marmalades and fruit butters will require less boiling and will be smoother and better flavored if the fruit is well cooked and mashed before adding either sugar or vinegar. They should be stirred constantly with an apple butter stirrer.


For jelly, select fruit that is not too ripe as it will jelly better and have a better flavor. It should be heated as the juice can then be better extracted. Jelly should be strained twice and will be much lighter if allowed to hang and drip over night. Heat the juice, then add the sugar which should first be heated in the oven. Jelly should be boiled rapidly in a pan with a large bottom. It should not stop boiling till done, which usually requires fifteen or twenty minutes. If a little gelatin be added it will not need to be cooked so long and will be of a lighter color. After the glasses are filled they should be set in the sun till cold, then a piece of writing paper should be placed directly on the jelly and another piece fastened over the glass with a rubber band. Molding may be prevented by putting a teaspoonful of sugar on top of the jelly in the glass.

1. Grape Marmalade-Two pounds seeded raisins, 3 cups granulated sugar, 1 pound English walnut meats; remove seeds and skins of grapes; cook 20 minutes.

2. Quince Honey.-One quart of quinces grated fine, 1 quart of sugar, 1 pint of water. Boil about 20 minutes after it comes to a boil.

3. Orange Marmalade.-This is much more satisfactory if made in small quantities. Take 3 oranges and 1 lemon; slice very thin, not using the ends. Place in a bowl and pour over it 3 pints of cold water, let stand for 24 hours. Then boil in a porcelain kettle until very tender and let stand for another 24 hours. Then to every cup of fruit and liquid add a cup of sugar and boil briskly for about an hour. Try, and the minute it jellies remove from the fire and fill hot dry glasses. Let stand two days before sealing.

4. Quince Honey.-Grate one large quince, add 2 cups of sugar and 1/2 cup of water. Boil 20 minutes.

5. Cooking Apricots.-Boil apricots for 5 minutes in water to which 1/2 teaspoonful of soda has been added and and you will be surprised at the small amount of sugar it takes to sweeten them when cooking.

6. Canned Corn.-Add 1 cup of salt to 1 gallon of corn cut off the ears; mix well together and pack in jars and steam 3 hours. Screw the lids on the Mason jars tight before steaming.

7. Canned Elderberries (Excellent)-Add 2 l/2 pounds of sugar and 1 pint of pure cider vinegar to 7 pounds of elderberries; boil 1 hour. Then seal in jars. This will fill four jars and is excellent for pies.

8. Canned Beans.-Pack the beans in tight jars after stringing and breaking in small pieces. Put a teaspoonful of salt on the tops, and cover them with cold water. Seal jars tight. Place the jars in a boiler of cold water and let boil from 3 to 4 hours.

9. Canned Rhubarb.-Peel the rhubarb and cut into small pieces, pack in jars, fill with cold water, seal tight, when ready to use will not need as much sugar as when fresh.

10. To Cook Cranberries.-To 1 quart of cranberries add 1 teacup of water and put them over the fire. After cooking 10 minutes, add 2 heaping cups of sugar, and cook 10 minutes longer, stirring frequently. Pour them into a bowl or mold and when cold they may be removed as a jelly. If preferred, they may be strained through a sieve before putting in sugar.

11. Preserved Cherries.-Use rich, red cherries; stone and weigh them adding 3/4, pound of loaf sugar for each pound of fruit. Let the fruit, stoned and sweetened, stand in a stone jar over night; in the morning put them in the preserving kettle and cook until clear. Put in tumblers; cover the tops, when cool, with melted paraffin before putting on covers.

12. Strawberry Preserves.-Take equal parts by weight of sugar and fruit; the berries should be solid, used as soon as ready and not sugared down. Use just enough water to keep them from sticking and put berries, sugar and water all on at the same time and cook for 20 minutes. Then spread on flat dishes and set in sun for 3 or 4 days and then put in glass jars. They will need no more heating or cooking. These are considered fine.

13. Pear Chips.-Ten pounds of pears sliced thin, 7 pounds of sugar, 4 lemons boiled soft; press out the juice and pulp; chop the peel very fine. Boil the sugar and fruit together until soft; then add the lemon, 1/2 pound green ginger root scraped and cut into bits. Let all boil slowly until quite thick. Can be put in jelly glasses and sealed with paper. Very fine

14. Gooseberry Conserves.-Six quarts green gooseberries, 5 pounds granulated sugar, 2 pounds seedless raisins, 5 oranges. Remove the stems from the berries, and chop the raisins rather coarsely. Cut the oranges into halves and take out the juice and pulp, removing the seeds; cook peel of three of them soft in enough boiling water to cover, changing water once or twice; drain; remove the white part from the peel by scraping with a spoon. Then cut into narrow strips; put sugar, berries, orange peel, juice and rind together in a kettle and heat slowly until the syrup is thick.

15. Quince Honey.-Take four pounds of granulated sugar and 1 pint of water and boil for 20 minutes. Constantly skim syrup until clear; grate 1 1/2 quince very fine; then pour into the syrup and let boil 10 minutes.

16. Orange Marmalade.-Cut the oranges in halves; take out the pulp with a spoon; take 1 lemon to 5 oranges, preparing the same way. Then cut the shell of the oranges in two, scrape out the white lining and put the skins on to boil; weigh the pulp, take half as much sugar and simmer together 15 minutes. When the skins are transparent and tender, take up and, putting several pieces together, cut it quickly into the narrowest possible strips. Mix these with pulp and sugar; cook until very thick. Put in glasses and when cold, seal.

17. Lemon Marmalade.-Take 6 lemons and slice them thin; remove only the seeds; add 3 pints of cold water to each pound of sliced fruit; let this stand for 24 hours, then boil until the chips are tender; pour into an earthen bowl and let stand until next day. Then weigh and, to every pound of pulp, add 1 1/2 pounds of sugar; boil until the syrup jellies and the chips are transparent.

18. Lemon Butter.-Juice and grated rind of 2 lemons, 2 cups of sugar, 2 eggs, small lump of butter; boil 10 minutes in a double boiler.

19. Canned Elderberries.- Add 4 pints of sugar and 3 pints of best cider vinegar to each peck of cleaned elderberries. Cook until well done and can.

20. Tomato Preserves.-Scald and peel carefully some small tomatoes (yellow preferred), add an equal weight of sugar and let stand over night; pour off all the juice and boil until it is a thick syrup; add tomatoes and boil until transparent. A piece of ginger root or 1 lemon, sliced thin, to a pound of fruit is a good addition. Excellent.

21. Pieplant Jelly.-Cut pieplant into small pieces, without peeling; cover with water; boil to a pulp; then strain through a flannel bag. Bring the juice to a boil and for each pint add a pint of sugar; boil for about 20 minutes or until it will jell.

22. Orange Marmalade.-One dozen navel oranges and 2 lemons; cut in small pieces, the smaller the better. Cover with 3 quarts of water and let stand 24 hours. Then measure the juice and allow 1 pound of sugar to 1 quart of juice and boil until tender or transparent.

23. Canned Apple Sauce.-Put apple sauce into hot jars and seal at once and it may be kept either for table use or for pies till apples are out of the market.

24. Canned Pineapple.-Pare the pineapples and carefully cut out all the eyes; chop them fine and weigh; add the same weight of sugar; put into a large crock, mix thoroughly and let stand 24 hours; fill the cans full and seal tight. In about two weeks look them over to see that none are spoiling. If they are, heat them again and refill cans.