| PIONEER COOKING RECIPES HOME PAGE
PART 1 BREADMAKING
PART 2 SANDWICHES, COOKIES, FRITTERS, DOUGHNUTS, ETC.
PART 3 CAKE MAKING
PART 4 CAKE RECIPES
PART 5 MEATS, POULTRY, GAME, FISH, OYSTERS & CROQUETTES
PART 6 SOUPS & VEGETABLE DISHES
PART 7 EGGS & OMLETES
PART 8 PICKLING
PART 9 CANNING
PIONEER HOUSEHOLD TIPS 236 TIPS INCLUDING RECIPES OF ALL KINDS
PIONEER HOSEHOLD TIPS
WHAT TO DO & HOW TO DO IT
1. Blacksmiths Borax for Welding.-One ounce of salt, one ounce saltpeter, two ounces copperas, four pounds of sand; mix.
2. Washing Fluid.-One ounce of salts of tartar, one ounce of carbonate ammonia, one box Bahbits lye, one gallon of soft water. Use one-half teacup to a washing. 3. Furniture Dressing.-Use equal parts of alcohol and raw linseed oil. First remove all greasy substances, then apply with a soft woolen cloth.
4. Washing Fluid.-One box of lye and five cents worth of borax, salts of tartar and dry ammonia. Dissolve in two gallons of hot water, Take off fire before putting in ammonia. To be used in boiling suds.
5. To Clean Carpets.-One cake ivory soap, one bottle ammonia, five cents worth of ether; dissolve soap in one gallon of hot water; when cool, add ammonia and ether. Scrub small space at a time with a brush and wipe dry with a soft cloth wrung out of warm water.
6. Wall Paper Cleaner.-One-half cup water, one cup flour, three teaspoonfuls vinegar, three teaspoonfuls ammonia, one teaspoonful carbon oil. Boil and stir constantly yuntil thick; work in small balls, and rub paper with downward strokes. Will not streak or spot if made as directed. Fine.
7. Carpet Cleaner.-Two bars ivory soap, four ounces soda, four ounces borax; dissolve the soap in a quart of water; add five gallons of water and, when ready to use it, add four ounces of sulphuric ether; use while hot with scrubbing brush. You do not need to use any cloth or clean water.
8. Carpet Cleaner.-Use five cents worth of salts of tartar to one bar of white wool or ivory soap; add this to three gallons of water. Shave the soap up fine and let it boil. Apply with brush and dry with dry cloth. This is fine
9. To Destroy Odor of Burning Lamp Wicks.-Boil new lamp wicks in vinegar and then thoroughly dry them. There will then be no odor from them when burning.
10. To Remove Paint Stains from Cotton and Wool.-Old dry paint stains may zbe removed from cotton and woolen goods by first covering the spots with olive oil or butter and then applying chloroform.
11. To Preserve Eggs.-One quart of salt, one pint of slacked lime and three gallons /of water. This liquid will keep eggs for years.
12. Ink Spots.-Oxalic acid will remove ink spots from books without injuring the print.
13. Rust-Iron rust may be removed with kerosene oil.
14. To Purify Cistern Water.-Cistern water may be purified by hanging a bag of charcoal in the water.
15. A Tight Shoe.-Wring a cloth out of hot water and apply to the part that is tight. CIf necessary renew and keep shoe on until the leather is stretched.
16. Cleaning Plates Before Washing.-Tack a bag on the inside of the kitchen sink door and in it keep cloths to be used in cleaning plates, etc. before dish washing. Dip the cloth in water, rub on a little soap, then wipe instead of scrape, the dishes. A great help in kitchen work.
17. To Clean Linoleum or Oil Cloth.-Instead of using soap and water, wash with sweet milk. The milk makes it look fresh and bright without destroying the luster.
18. To Clean Mud from Clothing.-Use a corn cob to rub the mud from the clothing, then brush well.
19. To Kill Insects, Such as Bed Bugs, Moths, Etc.-Hot alum water is the best 3thing known to destroy insects. Boil alum in water until it is dissolved; then apply the hot solution with a brush to closets, bedsteads cracks, or wherever insects are found. All creeping insects may be destroyed by its use. There is no danger of poisoning and its persistent use will rid you of the pests.
20. To Remove the Smell of Onions from the Breath.-Parsley eaten with Cvinegar will destroy the unpleasant breath caused by eating onions.
21. To Clean and Keep Oil Cloth Nice.-Wash in clean, warm, soft water in which has been dissolved a large spoonful of borax. If hard water is used, more borax will be needed.
22. To Mend Iron Vessels.-Mix finely some sifted lime with the whiteof an egg till a thin paste is formed, then add some iron filings. Apply the fracture and the vessel will be found nearly as sound as ever.
23. To Clean Lamp Chimneys.-Hold chimney over the steam coming from a boiling kettle, then wipe it inside and outside with a soft muslin cloth.
24. An Excellent Furniture Polish.-Use equal parts of vinegar, turpentine and sweet oil. The bottle should be well shaken each time before using. Wet a cloth and rub well over the furniture, then wipe with a soft dry cloth.
25. To Remove Tan.-Wash with a solution of lemon juice and carbonate of soda; follow with the juice of unripe grapes if they may be had; if not, with " Fullers Earth Water."
26. To Remove Wrinkles.-Melt and stir together one ounce of white wax, two ounces of strained honey and two ounces of the juice of lily bulbs; apply to the face every night and it is said your wrinkles will disappear.
27. To Remove Coffee Stains.-The yolk of an egg mixed with a little water will remove coffee stains. Glycerin will do the same. Rub out before washing.h
28. To Remove Ink from Linen.-Dip the stained parts in pure melted tallow, then wash in water.
29. To Remove Grease from Woolen Goods.-Do not put either hot or cold water upon woolens that have had grease spilled upon them. Sprinkle the parts with either buckwheat or rye flour and let it absorb the grease; then brush off the flour and apply more, [so continuing until all the grease has been absorbed. Cornstarch is equally effective when #used upon cloth in the same manner.
30. To Exterminate Roaches.-With a machine oil - can, squirt kerosene oil into cracks and seams behind woodwork, then sprinkle powdered borax over the shelves and blow it into the cracks with a powder blower.
31. To Keep Steel Knives from Rusting.-Dip the knives in a strong solution of asoda, four parts of soda to one of water; then wipe dry, roll in flannel and keep in a dry place.
32. Washing Blankets.-When washing blankets make a lather of boiled soap and warm water and for each pailful and a half of water allow a teaspoonful of household ammonia. Wash in two or three waters, put through the wringer and hang out to dry. Choose Xa fine windy day so the blankets will dry quickly.
33. To Exterminate Bed Bugs.-Use kerosene oil freely wherever the bugs are found.
34. Cement for Glass and Iron.-Alum melted in an iron spoon over the fire makes a good cement for joining glass and iron. It is useful for cementing the glass part of a lamp to its metal base and stopping cracks about the base, as paraffin will not penetrate it.
35. To Dry Boots.-Fill wet boots with dry oats and set aside for a few hours. The oats will draw the moisture from the boots and, swelling out, will keep the leather from shrinking and hardening as it would do if placed near the fire to dry.
36. To Remove Kerosene.-Cover the spot with cornmeal; lay a paper over it and rub with a moderately heated iron. Two or three applications will remove the kerosene. Finely powdered chalk may be used instead of the cornmeal if desired.
37. To Remove Fruit Stains.-Fruit stains may be removed from table linen by pouring boiling water through the cloth where it is stained.
38. Furniture Polish.-A fine furniture polish may be made by taking equal parts of vinegar and salad oil. Apply sparingly with a flannel and polish off thoroughly with clean cloths. Dont forget to mix lots of "elbow grease " with this.
39. To Clean Glass.-Dampen a cloth with either alcohol or ammonia, then dip it into some finely sifted wood ashes and polish the glass. Wipe off with a perfectly dry cloth.
40. To Clean a Glass Decanter.-Put into it a spoonful of vinegar and a few lumps bof soda. Shake it well but leave the top open or it may burst the decanter. Rinse with cold water.
41. To Remove Panes of Glass.-Lay soft soap over the putty for a few hours and it will become soft so that it may be easily scraped away no matter how hard it may previously have been.
42. To Clean Light Gloves.-Light gloves may be cleaned by rubbing them with fine bread crumbs. It is best to rub them after each wearing so that they do not become badly soiled.
43. To Clean Kid Gloves.- If not too badly soiled kid gloves may be cleaned by rubbing them with a piece of oiled silk wound about the finger.
44. Gnats.-Camphor is the best preventive and cure for the stings of gnats.
45. To Remove Grass Stains.-Rub the stains with spirits of wine and they will /readily come out when washed in soap and water.
46. To Remove Grease.-Take equal parts of benzine, ether and alcohol; wet a [sponge in the mixture and apply by patting the spot; put a piece of blotting paper on each #side and iron with a hot flat iron.
47. To Remove Grease from Floor.-Soda and hot water will remove grease from the floor.
48. To Remove Ink Stains.-If ink is spilled upon a carpet, tablecloth or dress it is best to take up as much of the ink as possible with blotting paper, or salt is also good to absorb it. Then wash the parts thoroughly with milk several times until all the ink is removed. It is then well to wash out the parts with ammonia water to remove grease. If the spots are dry, rub a piece of lemon on some salt and then upon the stain. Oxalic acid and salts of lemon are both good also.
49. To Clean Lamp Chimneys.-Rub them with a piece of newspaper upon which a little kerosene has been poured. This is better than soap and the chimney will not be so likely to crack.
50. To Wash Flannels.-Put borax in the water and the flannels will look like new and will not shrink.
51. Ironing.-A little table salt added to the starch helps in the ironing.
52. To Prevent Scorching when Ironing.-Rub the iron on a cloth saturated with kerosene.
53. To Remove Stains from Clothing.-Rub the stained parts with lard before pwashing. With washable goods, the yolk of an egg rubbed upon the stains before laundering will remove the spots.
54. To Wash Black Stockings.-Black stockings will retain their color if washed in warm suds of water and soap, with a little vinegar in the rinse.
55. To Polish Patent Leather.- Orange juice will be found to be a good polish for patent leather.
56. To Remove Old Paint and Varnish.-A mixture of two parts of ammonia and one part turpentine will soften old paint and varnish so that they may be easily be scraped off.
57. To Wash Painted Surfaces.-Wash painted surfaces with milk. 58. Piano Polish.-Rub well with ,a piece of flannel cloth saturated with a mixture of equal parts of turpentine, linseed oil and vinegar. Polish with a piece of chamois skin. This treatment will entirely, remove the dingy appearance from fine woods.
59. To Loosen Screws.-Hold a red hot poker on the head of a rusty screw for two Aor three minutes and it may be easily removed with a screw driver.
60. To Clean Blackened Silver.-Add a teaspoonful of ammonia to a cup of water and use a little of this to make a paste with whiting. Apply the paste to the silverware with a soft chamois and polish it, using another chamois to dry it.
61. To Remove Soot.-Should soot fall upon the carpet cover it with dry salt and it may be swept up without leaving smears.
62. To Remove Tea Stains.-Tea stains may be removed by washing the fabric with milk. After the milk has dried the grease may be removed with benzine or naphtha.
63. To Frost Window Panes.-Dissolve some epsom salts in beer and apply with a brush and you will have the best window frosting known.
64. To Dry Woolens Without Shrinking.-A large manufacturer of woolen goods [says that woolen garments should be hung on the line dripping wet and not wrung out at all. If dried in this way the shrinkage will be almost unnoticeable.
65. Moths.-Moths will not lay their eggs where fine-cut tobacco has been scattered.
66. Moths.-Sprinkle furs and woolens and the drawers and boxes in which they are kept with spirits of turpentine and the moths will not bother them.
67. Moths.-Camphor gum is a preventive of moths. Goods packed in a cedar chest will be kept free from moths. Exposing clothes and furs occasionally to the light and air and beating and shaking them is probably the best treatment, however.
68. To Keep Away Mice.-Mice do not like the smell of camphor gum and if it is placed in drawers or trunks they will keep at a distance. Seeds may also be protected by mixing small pieces of camphor gum with them.
69. To Drive Rats Away Without Killing.-Put plenty of pulverized potash in their holes and places they frequent and they will leave the premises.
70. To Drive Rats Away.-Put some copperas in whitewash and paint the places they visit. Also scatter the crystals of copperas in their holes and runways and over the floors and the rats will look for another home.
71. To Drive Away Rats.-Scatter either sulphur or sage about the places they 7frequent and you will get rid of the troublesome pests.
72. A Preventive for Red Ants.-Pour a quart of boiling water over half a pint of tar in an earthen vessel and set the vessel in the closet and you will not be troubled with red ants.
73. To Get Rid of Flies.-It is said that you will not be troubled with many flies if you keep geraniums growing in the house. Then why not have more flowers and fewer flies?
74. To Prevent Bites from Mosquitoes and Flies.-Mix three ounces sweet oil and one ounce of carbolic acid and when mosquitoes are troublesome apply to the face and hands every half hour. After it has been used two or three days and the skin is saturated it may be used less frequently. Be careful not to get it in the eyes. It is very effective and not harmful to the skin.
75. Mosquitoes and Flies.-Apply to the face and hands a mixture of six parts of sweet oil, one part pennyroyal and one part creosote and you will prevent bites of mosquitoes and flies. Do not allow it to get in the eyes
76. To Clean Jewelry.-Wash the jewelry in soap suds, rinse it well in diluted alcohol and lay it in sawdust to dry. Fine for gold chains and all kinds of ornaments.
77. To Clean Silver.-Rub the silver with alcohol and ammonia, then polish with a little whiting on a soft cloth. Even frosted silver may be made clear and bright with this treatment.
78. To Purify Water.-A large spoonful of pulverized alum will purify a hogshead of water. It should be thoroughly stirred in and it will be very effective in killing microbes.
79. To Make Hard Water Soft.-Fill the boiler with hard water and set on the stove. Then put half a cup of wood ashes into a woolen bag covered with cotton cloth to prevent the sifting out of the ashes and hang the bag in the water until the water is warm.
80. To Clean Tinware.-Take the fine, soft coal ashes which collect in the pipe and under the pan; mix these with soft soap and scour with a flannel cloth. Afterwards polish with a clean flannel.
81. Gem Washing Fluid.-Put three quarts of rain water over the fire and add one pound of salsoda, one ounce salts of tartar and one ounce of borax. After it is taken from the stove and is cold add one ounce of ammonia. Put one cup of this into the boiler when boiling clothes.
82. Hard Soap.-Put seven pounds of tallow, three pounds of rosin and two pounds )of potash into six gallons of water and boil for from three to five hours; pour into a wash tub and let it stand over night. In the morning cut it into bars and lay in the sun for two or three days to harden. This will last an ordinary family a year and save many a quarter that is spent for soap.
83. Soft Soap.-To six gallons of soft water add three pounds of best hard soap (finely cut), one pound of salsoda and four tablespoonfuls of hartshorn; boil until it is entirely dissolved; pour into convenient vessels and when cold it will be ready for use This makes fifty pound of fine soft soap.
84. To Remove Scorches from Cloth.-Spread over the scorched places a mixture of the juice of two onions, two ounces Fullers earth and one-half pint of vinegar. These ingredients should be mixed, thoroughly boiled and cooked before using
85. To Remove Stains Caused by Scorching.-Often all that is required to whiten scorched linen is to wet it with soap suds and lay it in the hot sun. Another method is to boil the linen in a gallon of milk in which is dissolved a pound of white soap.
86. To Remove Mildew.-Dip the article in sour buttermilk, lay it in the sun to whiten and wash in clean water. Another method is to apply a mixture of soap, starch, salt and the juice of a lemon. Use half as much salt as starch.
87. To Remove Linen Stains.-Rub the stains with soft soap, apply a starch paste, Mdry in the sun and wash out in cold water. Repeat several times if necessary.
88. To Clean Gilt Frames.-Take chloride of plaster or soda, one ounce; white of deggs, two ounces; mix thoroughly and apply with a soft brush after blowing the dust from the frames.
89. To Keep Butter for Winter Use.-Into six pounds of fresh butter work a large spoonful of salt and a tablespoonful each of saltpeter and powdered white sugar. Pack in a crock that is perfectly clean and cover with salt.
90. To Prevent Rust.-Melt together one part of rosin and three parts of lard and apply a thin coating to stoves, grates, plows, etc. It is equally good when used on brass, steel, copper and other metals. This also makes a good water-proof application for boots and shoes.
91. Cement for Wood, Ivory, Stone, Porcelain, Leather, Silk, Woolen or Cotton.-Melt together in an iron vessel one part, by weight, of gutta percha and two parts of common pitch and you will have one of the best cements made. It is not affected by water and is thus especially valuable for certain purposes.
92. Cement for Rubber or Leather.-Dissolve two ounces of gutta percha in a Ypound of chloroform. Thoroughly clean the parts that are to be cemented, cover each part with the mixture and let them dry for nearly half an hour, then warm each part in a candle flame and press firmly together until dry.
93. Diamond Cement.-Dissolve thirteen ounces of white glue in a pint and a half of soft water, then stir in three ounces of white lead and boil until it is thoroughly mixed; remove from the stove and when cool add half a pint of alcohol; bottle at once and keep tightly corked.
94. Weights and Measures.- One pound of soft
butter is equal to a pint.
95. To Clean Coat Collars and Remove Gloss from Seams and Elbows.- Rub the parts with a clean flannel dipped in either benzine or aqua ammonia or, a solution made by dissolving a piece of carbonate of ammonia the size of a walnut in a cup of warm water. These are inexpensive and will not change the color. Do not use benzine in a room where there is a light or fire.
96. Liquid Glue.-Dissolve glue in nitric ether and it will be twice as adhesive as that dissolved in hot water. The glue cannot be made too thick as the ether will dissolve only a certain amount of glue and will be of about the consistency of molasses. If a few bits of India rubber are dissolved in it the glue will be all the better and will stand moisture better.
97. Cement for Broken China.-Dissolve gum arabic in water until it is quite thick and then stir in Plaster of Paris until it makes a sticky paste. Apply with a brush, stick the pieces together and after three days you cannot break the china in the same place.
98. Fire-Kindler.-Soak corn cobs in kerosene oil; when needed put a cob in the *stove, set fire to it and put on the fuel.
99. To Loosen Covers of Fruit Jars.-Place the cover in hot water for two or three minutes and it may then be easily unscrewed.
100. To Wash Calicoes, Cambrics and Muslins.-Before washing, soak them in Zwater in which has been dissolved one or two tablespoonfuls of salt to each pail of water.
101. To Wash and Dry Flannels.-Wash flannels with as little rubbing as possible. =Pull them both lengthwise and crosswise while drying rapidly.
102. Washing Black and White Calicoes.-Soak them first in water to which has =been added one or two cups of weak lye to each pail of water.
103. Washing Pink and Green Calicoes.-It is best to use one or two 1tablespoonfuls of vinegar to each pail of water.
104. Washing Purple or Blue.-Use one or two tablespoonfuls of either salsoda or borax to each pail of water.
105. To Wash Ribbons.-Ribbons should be washed in cold suds and should not be rinsed.
106. To Remove Paint Spots from Windows.-Dissolve an ounce of salsoda in a pint of soft water. Use it hot. Tie a flannel on a stick, dip into the liquid and apply until the paint is softened, then wash off with hot water.
107. Washing Windows.-Add a tablespoonful of either powdered Borax or Tammonia to a gallon of warm water and wash the windows, using a chamois to dry and polish them.
108. China and Glass Cement.-Mix one pint of milk with one pint of vinegar; take out the curds and to the whey add the whites of five eggs; beat well together and add enough finely sifted quick lime to make a thick paste. This cement is fine for mending glass and china as it is affected by neither fire nor water.
109. Grafting Wax.-Melt together two pounds of rosin and a half pound each of tallow and beeswax. Mix thoroughly, cool in cold water and work until it is pliable. It will keep for years.
110. To Destroy Currant Worms and Rose Slugs.-Spray the bushes with a Qsolution of one pound of powdered hellebore to twenty five gallons of water.
111. Cabbage Worms.-Spray the cabbages with a mixture of six quarts of water, one ounce of yellow soap and one pint of kerosene, and you will kill the worms without injuring the plant. This mixture should be kept well mixed while applying.
112. Treatment of New Cooking Utensils.-Iron pots should be boiled out first with wood ashes and cold water and then thoroughly washed. They are then ready for use. Griddles, skillets, waffle irons and iron gem pans should be greased and allowed to burn off once or twice before they are used for cooking.
113. To Wash Greasy Skillets.-Greasy skillets are best cleaned when hot. The addition of a little soda to the first water will make them more easily cleaned.
114. To Clean Bottles and Cruets.-These are best cleaned with shot and soap suds. Save the shot in a bottle to be used again.
115. Care of Coffee Pots.-If you would have good coffee always keep the inside of the pot clean. Boil it out once in a while with soap, water and wood ashes and scour it thoroughly.
116. The Teakettle.-In localities where there is lime in the water it is well to keep an oyster or egg shells in the teakettle to receive the lime deposits.
117. To Clean Kitchen Floors, Tables and Wooden Articles.-Use sand or bath 8brick to scrub floors, tables and wooden articles.
118. To Keep Silverware.-It keeps best when wrapped in blue tissue paper.
119. To Keep Hinges from Creaking.-Dip a feather into oil and rub them with it.
120. To Drive Away Fleas.-Sprinkle a few drops of lavender about the beds and -other places they infest.
121. To Drive Away Red Ants.-Put a small bag of sulphur in the drawers and cupboards.
122. Icy Windows.-Rub the glass with a sponge dipped in alcohol and the windows will be kept free from ice. Alcohol is also good to polish them with.
123. To Kill Roaches.-They may be poisoned by sprinkling the floors at night with hellebore.
124. To Keep Pails and Tubs from Shrinking.-Soak them with glycerin and the 7pails and tubs will not shrink and fall to pieces._
125. To Keep Flies Off Gilt Frames.-Boil three or four onions in a pint of water Band apply the water to the frames with a soft cloth or brush.
126. To Remove Dry Putty from Window Frames.-Pass a red hot poker over the putty and it may easily be removed.
127. To Soften Hard Water.-Water may be softened by boiling it. Hard spring water is softened by adding a piece of chalk to it. Cistern water that is hard from long standing may be softened by the addition of a little borax.
128. To Remove Smell of Fresh Paint.-Mix chloride of lime in water, sprinkle hay with it and place in the room.
129. To Clean Chromos.-Go over them carefully with a slightly dampened linen rag. If any of the varnish is off apply a thin mastic varnish.
130. To Clean a Sponge.-Rub fresh lemon juice thoroughly into a soured sponge, then rinse several times in warm water and the sponge will be as sweet as when new.
131. To Take Kerosene and Grease Spots from Carpets.-Cover the grease spot uwith flour and then pin a thick paper over it and after leaving awhile sweep up the flour. Repeat several times.
132. Hard Whitewash.-Dissolve five cents worth of glue in warm water and mix with ten cents worth of kalsomine, two quarts of soft soap and bluing. Fine for halls, fences, etc.
133. To Remove Bad Smells from Clothing.-Articles of clothing or any other articles which have bad smelling substances on them may be freed from the smell by wrapping them up lightly and burying in the ground for a day or two.
134. To Mend Tin.-Scrape all rust and grease from the parts to be mended, rub a piece of resin on it till a powder lies about the hole, lay a piece of solder over it and hold a hot poker or soldering iron over it until the solder melts.
135. To Remove Grease from Wood Before Painting.-Whitewash the parts at night and wash off in the morning. Let it dry before painting. It is as well to lay a little slacked lime on the parts and dampen a little.
136. Lightning Cream for Clothes or Paint.-Dissolve four ounces of finely cut white castile soap in one quart of soft water over the fire; remove from fire; add four ounces of ammonia, two ounces of alcohol, two ounces of ether and one ounce of glycerin.
137. Magic Furniture Polish.-One-half pint of alcohol, one-half ounce gum-shellac, one-half ounce resin, a few drops of aniline brown; mix and let stand over night, then add one-half pint spirits of turpentine and three-fourths pint of raw linseed oil. This should be Zwell shaken before using. Apply with a cotton flannel and rub dry with another cloth.
138. To Temper Lamp Chimneys and Other Glassware.-Put them into cold water; bring slowly to the boiling point and let them boil for an hour. They should be allowed to cool before removing from water.
139. A Good Cement for All Kinds of Articles.-Mix litharge and glycerin until of the consistency of thick cream or fresh putty. This is good for fastening on lamp posts, mending stone jars, stopping leaks in seams of wash boilers or tin pans, cracks in iron kettles, etc. It is not affected by water, heat or acids.
140. To Clean Wall Paper.-Blow the dust off the wall with a bellows and then, beginning at the top of the room, go all over the paper, rubbing it with downward strokes with pieces of stale bread. Or, tie about two quarts of wheat bran in a flannel and go over the paper with that. Or, dry corn meal may be used instead of bread. Apply on a cloth. Grease spots may be removed by laying a blotter over them and then holding a hot flatiron on the blotter.
141. To Drive Away Red Ants.-Scatter sweet fern in the places they frequent.
142. To Remove Egg Stains from Silverware.-Rub the silverware with a little salt or wash in water in which potatoes have been boiled.
143. To Remove Taste of Fish from Tableware.-Rub steel knives and forks with fresh lemon or orange peel to remove the taste of fish.
144. Corks.-If they are too large put them into hot water for a few moments to soften.
145. To Prevent Rusting of Cutlery.-After wiping dry, wrap it in coarse brown paper.
146. To Brighten Tin Teakettles.-With a woolen cloth saturated with kerosene a tin teakettle may be rubbed as bright as new.
147. Care of Wire Tableware.-It will keep bright if washed in clean water with soap added. Never scour it.
148. Silver Polish.-Add three ounces of precipitated chalk and two ounces of ]ammonia to one quart of rain water. Keep well corked in a bottle and shake before using.
149. Cement for China, Marble and Glassware.-Add enough finelyIpowdered quick lime to the whites of two eggs to make a thick paste.
150. Waterproof Paper Covering for Jars-Used in Preserving, Etc.-Brush the Fpaper over with boiled linseed oil and hang over a line until dry.
151. To Remove Tight Glass Stoppers.-Wet a cloth in hot water and wrap it around the neck of the bottle. Another way is to wind a cord once around the neck of the bottle and saw back and forth a few times until the neck is heated and expands.
152. To Clean Knives.-Take a raw potato, cut it in two, dip the flat surface in brick dust and rub the knife blades. This will remove rust and stains. A cloth or a cork may be used in like manner.
153. A Fire Kindler.-Melt together a quart of tar and three pounds of resin and stir in as much pulverized charcoal and sawdust as possible; spread on a board to cool and then break it into lumps the size of a walnut. These lumps may be lighted with a match and will burn quite a while with a good blaze
154. To Clean Brass or Copper Kettles.-First scour with soap and ashes, then put in a handful of salt and a half pint of vinegar; put over the fire and let come to a boil and wash out thoroughly, afterwards rinsing with water. If the kettle is used every day the scouring with soap and ashes may be omitted.
155. To Soften Water.-Boil a small bottle in a kettle of water to soften the water. The carbonate of lime and other impurities will be found adhering to the bottle.
156. To Remove Rust from Plows and Other Steel Implements.-Rub the steel well with sweet oil and let it remain for two days, then rub it with finely powdered unslacked lime until the rust is removed.
157. To Polish Iron or Steel.-Vienna lime and alcohol applied with leather, chamois Ka cork or piece of soft wood will give a fine polish to iron or steel.
158. To Clean White Zephyr.-Rub with either magnesia or flour and change often. Shake off the flour or magnesia and hang for a short time in the open air.
159. To Clean Alpaca.-Sponge alpaca with strained coffee and iron on the wrong -side with black cambric under the goods.
160. To Take Out Machine Oil.-Rub with a little soap and wash out in cold water. Another way is to rub with a little butter or lard and wash in warm water.
161. To Stiffen Linen Collars and Cuffs.-Add a teaspoonful of brandy and a asmall piece of white wax to a pint of fine starch. Soap the bottom of the iron if it sticks.
162. To Clean Rusty Wash Boilers.-Wash them with sweet milk or grease with lard.
163. To Remove Paint from Clothing.-Saturate the spot two or three times with equal parts of spirits of turpentine and ammonia and then wash out with soap suds. This treatment will remove paint no matter how dry or hard it may be.
164. To Restore Velvet.-Velvet when crushed may be restored to its original beauty Pby holding it over a basin of hot water with the wrong side next the water.
165. To Remove Spots, Caused by an Acid, from Cloth.-Touch the spots with spirits of hartshorn.
166. To Remove Spots, Caused by an Alkali, from Cloth.-Moisten the spots *with either vinegar or tartaric acid.
167. To Prevent Blue from Fading.-All shades of blue may be prevented from fading by soaking for two hours in a solution of an ounce of sugar of lead to a pail of water. The material should then be allowed to dry before washing and ironing.
168. To Wash Red Table Linen.-Set the color by using warm or tepid water in which a little powdered borax has been dissolved; wash the article separately and quickly, using but a very little soap and rinse in tepid water containing a little boiled starch; hang in the shade and iron when almost dry.
169. To Clean Alpaca.-Put the goods into a boiler half full of cold rain water and let come to a boil and boil three minutes. Wring out of the boiling water and put into a pail of very dark indigo water, let remain for half an hour, wring out and iron while damp.
170. To Clean Velvet.-Turn a hot flatiron bottom side up, put one thickness of wet cotton cloth over it, lay the velvet on this with the wrong side next the wet cloth, rub gently with a dry cloth until the pile is raised then lay the velvet on a table and brush with a cloth or soft brush.
171. To Take Grease Out of Woolens, Silks, Paper, Floors, Etc.-Grate either French or common chalk thickly over the spot, cover with a brown paper, set a hot flatiron }on it and let it remain until cool; repeat if necessary. See that the iron is not hot enough to burn the paper or cloth.
172. Silver Polish for Shirts.-One ounce borax, one ounce isinglass, two teaspoonfuls white of egg, one teaspoonful white glue; cook well in two quarts of fine starch. Starch in this and dry. Before ironing apply it to the cuffs and bosom with a cloth until well dampened and iron immediately with a hot glossing iron.
173. To Clean Black Lace.-Wipe off all the dust carefully with a cambric handkerchief; then pin it on a board, inserting a pin in each point of lace that projects. Sprinkle it all over with table beer and leave it until perfectly dry when it will look fresh and new.
174. To Remove Iron Rust from Clothing.-When rinsing the clothes dip the wet finger in oxalic acid and rub on the spot, then dip in salt and rub on and then hold on a hot flatiron. Rinse again and rub with the hands.
175. To Wash Neckties and Other Goods that Fade.-Instead of soap use crude ammonia. Use a teaspoonful of spirits of hartshorn to two teacups water for washing neckties. If they are much soiled put through a second wash not quite so strong. Lay the tie on a clean white cloth and wipe it gentle with another cloth until dry.
176. To Clean Woolen and Silk Dress Goods.-Any woolen or silk dress goods may be washed and rubbed in gasoline without injury. The dirt is quickly removed without injuring the colors. Do not use gasoline near a stove or light.
177. To Clean Silk and Thread Gloves.-Put the gloves on the hands and wash them in white castile soap suds or in borax water the same as though washing the hands; rinse by holding under a stream of water and dry with a towel. Keep them on until half dried, remove and fold carefully like new gloves and lay between towels under a weight.
178. To Wash Delicate Colored Muslins.-Make a thick corn meal mush, salt it well and use instead of soap; rinse in one or two waters. It will not need starching.
179. Washing Laces.-Mix the dry particles of starch with enough cold water to make a smooth paste and add cold water until it looks like milk and water and boil in a glazed earthen vessel until transparent. While the starch is cooling squeeze the laces through soap suds and rinse in clear water. If you desire them to be clear white, add a little bluing; if ivory white, omit the bluing; if yellow tinged, add a few teaspoonfuls of clear coffee to the starch. Run through the starch, squeeze, roll up in towels, and clap each piece separately until dry. Pull gently into shape from time to time and pin upon the ironing board. When dry press between tissue paper with a hot iron. Punch the openings and pick each loop on the edge with a large pin until it looks like new.
180. To Bleach Muslin.-For fifteen yards of muslin dissolve one-half pound of chloride of lime in a quart of rain water. Soak the muslin over night in warm rain water. Wring out the cloth and put in another half tub of warm rain water in which the solution of lime has been poured. Leave it in this for about twenty minutes but lift up cloth for an airing every few minutes. Rinse in clear rain water. Will not injure the cloth.
181. To Wash Lace Curtains.-Carefully shake out all the dust and put the curtains into tepid water in which is dissolved a little soda and without soaking wash at once in several waters. Rinse in water that has been well blued; also blue the boiled starch deeply and squeeze, but do not wring, the curtains. If you have no curtain frames, some sheets may be pinned on the carpet in a vacant room and the curtains pinned to them Have the curtains stretched to same size as before washing. In a few hours they will be dry and ready to put up. The curtains should not be soaked and the washing and stretching should be done as quickly as possible for curtains shrink rapidly. They should be measured before washing so they may be stretched the same size.
182. To Keep Cranberries.-Put them into a keg of water and they may be kept all winter.
183. To Keep Celery.-Bury it in dry sand.
184. To Keep Onions.-The best way is to spread them over the floor.
185. To Keep Turnips.-Bury them deep in the ground and they will keep until spring.
186. To Keep Lemons.-They will keep and also be more juicy if kept covered with cold water. The water should be changed every week.
187. To Keep Parsnips and Salsify.-Unless the climate is very severe they should be left in the ground all winter, otherwise they should be buried in a deep pit in the garden.
188. To Keep Parsley Green and Fresh.-Make a strong, boiling hot pickle of salt and water and keep it in this for use. If wanted for soups and stuffing, hang it up in bunches in a dry attic, with the blossoms down.
189. Whitewash for Cellars.-Add an ounce of carbolic acid to a gallon of whitewash or add copperas to ordinary whitewash until it is yellow. Copperas is a disinfectant and will drive away vermin. Carbolic acid will prevent the odors which taint milk and meat.
190. To Keep Cellars Clean.-Remove all vegetables as soon as they begin to decay and ventilate well. Sprinkle with chloride of lime, which is a disinfectant.L 191. To Keep All Kinds of Herbs.-Just before or while the herbs arePin blossom gather them on a dry day, tie in bundles and hang up with the blossoms downward. When they are perfectly dry those that are to be used as medicine should be wrapped in paper and kept from the air while those that are to be used in cooking should have the leaves picked off, pounded, sifted fine and corked tightly in bottles.
192. To Keep Cabbages.-Cut them off near the head and carry to cellar with leaves on, break off the leaves and pack the cabbages in a light box with the stems upward. When the box is nearly full cover with loose leaves and put the lid on to keep rats out. They should be kept in a dry cellar.
193. To Keep Potatoes.-They should be kept in a cool, dark place. When old and likely to sprout, put them into a basket and lower them for a minute or two into boiling water. Let them dry and put in sacks. This allows it to keep its flavor until late.
194. The Temperature at Which Vegetables Should be Kept.-Vegetables should Ebe kept at as low a temperature as possible without freezing. Apples will stand a very low temperature but sweet potatoes should have a dry and warm atmosphere and should be kept well packed in dry leaves. Squashes should be kept in a dry place and as cool as possible without freezing.
195. To Keep Peas for Winter Use.-Shell them and put into boiling water with a little salt added, boil for five minutes. Drain in a colander and afterwards on a cloth, then place in air-tight bottles. When used they should be boiled until tender and seasoned with butter.
196. To Keep Apples.-Apples are usually kept on open shelves where any that begin decaying may be removed immediately. Sometimes they are packed in layers of dry sand but care should be taken that they do not touch each other. They may also be packed thus in any grain, such as oats, barley etc. If the apples are very choice, each one should be wrapped separately in paper and packed in a box.
197. To Keep Grapes.-The simplest way is to keep them in drawers or boxes which hold about twenty-five pounds each, and pile them one above another. A better way is to ghang a barrel hoop from the ceiling by three cords; seal the stem with sealing wax, attach a wire to the small end of the bunch and hang on the hoop, taking care that no two bunches touch. The imperfect grapes should previously have been picked off. The room should not be too moist and yet not so dry as to wither the grapes and it should be free from frost.
198. To Keep Vegetables.-If they are to be kept a long time they should be pulled on a dry day and the tops should be cut off and trimmed. Pack them in layers in barrels or boxes with moss between and over them. The moss keeps them from shriveling and yet keeps out any excess of moisture.
199. Mucilage.-Dissolve three ounces of gum arabic by putting it into one-half pint of cold water and stirring frequently.
200. To Remove Coffee Stains.-Mix the yolk of an egg with a little water that is slightly warm and use it on the stain like soap. If the stains have been on for some time a little alcohol should be added to the egg and water.
201. To Restore Feathers.-Sprinkle a little salt on a hot stove and hold the plume in the fumes for a few minutes.
202. To Clean Feathers.-Pour boiling water over some white curd soap which has been cut into small pieces and add a little pearlash. When dissolved and cool enough for the hand, put the feathers into it and draw them through the hand until all the dirt is squeezed out, then pass them through a clean lather with bluing in it. Rinse in cold water with blue to give them a good color. Shake the water off by striking them against the hand, then dry them by shaking near a fire. To clean black feathers use water and gall and wash and dry in like manner.
203. To Curl Feathers.-When nearly dry draw each flue or fiber over the edge of a blunt knife, turning it the way you want it to curl; if the feather is to be flat, press it between the leaves of a book.
204. Magic Annihilator.-To make a gross of
8-ounce bottles of annihilator, take one gallon aqua ammonia, four pounds of best white
soap, eight ounces of saltpeter and eight gallons of soft water. Pour the water over the
soap which has previously been shaved fine and boil until dissolved. Let it get cold, then
add the saltpeter and stir until dissolved. Strain, let the suds settle, skim off the dry
suds, add the ammonia and bottle and cork at once.
205. To Remove Sealing Wax.-Apply either alcohol or naphtha to the spots with a camels-hair brush.
206. To Remove Tar.-Scrape off all the tar possible and then thoroughly wet the place with either melted lard or good salad oil and let it remain for twenty-four hours; if woolen or silk, take out the grease with either spirits of wine or ether; if cotton or linen wash out in strong, warm soap suds.
207. To Make Bluing for Clothes.-Powder one ounce of soft Prussian blue and putait into a bottle with a quart of clear rain water, then add one-fourth ounce of oxalic acid. Use a teaspoonful for a large washing.
208. Patent Soap.-Three pounds grease, three
pints salsoda, one-half pint turpentine, two pounds resin soap, forty gallons water; boil
one hour. This makes a great soap.
209. Brilliant Self-Shining Stove Polish.-Take
black lead (plumbago), finely pulverized, and put into 2-ounce wooden boxes; label them
neatly and retail for 10 or 15 cents per box, or wholesale at $6.00 per hundred. It costs
three cents per box to prepare.
210. To Clean Gold Chains, Etc.-Let the article lay in a solution of caustic potash until all the dirt is removed.
211. To Kill Carpet Bugs.-Put one tablespoonful of corrosive sublimate into a quart aof hot water and saturate the floors and cracks in the walls. If the carpet is to be sponged use 5a weaker solution. It will be found a sure treatment.
212. To Sweeten Rancid Butter.-Use 15 drops of chloride of lime to a pint of cold water and wash the butter thoroughly with it until it has touched every particle; then work the butter over in clear, cold water.
213. Liquid Glue.-Dissolve half a pound of best glue in three-fourths pint of water Tand add one-half pint of vinegar. This glue is always ready for use without warming.
214. Concrete.-Add 15 barrows of sand to 8 barrows of slacked lime that is well deluged with water. Do not use river or beach sand as it absorbs moisture. Mix to a creamy consistency and add 60 barrows of coarse gravel and work well. Stones 9 or 10 inches in diameter may be put into this mixture and it will become as hard as rock.
215. Patent Blacking.-One gallon alcohol, 1 1/2 pounds gum shellac, 1ounce sulphuric acid; let stand for 48 hours, then add 1/4 pound ivory black. Let stand 24 hours, then carefully pour off the top. This is for the polishing of all kinds of leather and is waterproof. Of course it may be made in smaller quantities by using the same proportions.
216. Axle Grease.-One pound tallow, 1/4 pound black lead, 1/4 pound castor oil; Zmelt the tallow; add the other ingredients and rub all together until cold and well mixed.
217. To Find the Number of Bushels in a Bin.-Multiply together the three dimensions in feet to get the number of cubic feet and deduct 1/5 and you will have approximately the number of bushels in the bin.
218. To Measure Hay.-Fifteen to eighteen cubic yards of hay well settled in mows or stacks make a ton; 20 to 25 cubic yards make a ton when loaded on a wagon from mow or stack; 25 cubic yards of dry clover make a ton .To find the number of tons in a mow multiply the length, width and height in yards and divide by 15 if well settled and by 18 if not so well settled.
219. Apple Tree Louse.-Lime and tobacco juice mixed together will kill them.
220. Army Worm.-A ditch around the field to be protected will arrest their progress so that they may be killed by covering with earth, by crushing with rollers, pouring coal oil in ditch or burning straw over them. The side of the ditch next to the field should be perpendicular or sloping under so they cannot easily crawl out.
221. Bark Lice.-Use a strong lye made from wood ashes or diluted soft soap or a mixture of lime, whitewash and kerosene. If the latter is used there should be a pint of kerosene to a gallon of whitewash.
222. Apple Tree Borers.-During the spring or early summer the trees should be washed with strong soap suds to kill the borers.
223. Cinch Bugs.-They may be destroyed with a mixture of soap suds and kerosene. Make the suds by using one pound of soap to ten gallons of water, then use equal parts of the suds and kerosene to make the emulsion.
224. Colorado Beetle or Potato Bug.-Dust the vines with Paris green; London purple or carbonate of lime.
225. Corn Moth.-Fill up all cracks and sweep the floors and walls clean before storing the corn. To destroy the moths, fill all cracks and then sprinkle the floor with a mixture of strong white wine vinegar and salt before Laying up the corn. If the moth has deposited its eggs on the grain salt may be mixed with it.
226. Grain Weevil.-The granary should be fumigated thoroughly with burning Asulphur before the grain is stored and again in about two months.
227. Caterpillars.-These may be destroyed with powdered helleboreq
228. Hessian Fly.-Quicklime scattered over the field immediately after the grain is cut will destroy the pupae. It is well to thresh as soon as possible after the grain is cut then to scatter the straw over the stubble and burn. Another way is to turn the cattle on the young wheat while the ground is yet frozen and let them eat the wheat close to the ground.
229. Strawberry Worms.-Poultry will destroy them. They should be turned into the patch before the berries are formed. Spray the plants with one pound of white hellebore in twenty gallons of water.
230. To Cut or Break Glass in Any Shape.-File a notch in the edge of the glass at /the place you wish to begin to break from; then put a red hot iron on the notch and draw it in the direction you wish the glass to break. If the iron be drawn slowly a crack will follow it. Another way is to hold the glass level under water and cut with a pair of shears.
231. To Bore Holes in Glass.-Any hard steel tool will easily cut glass if it be kept moist with camphor dissolved in turpentine. A drill may be used or, if that be not available, the tool may be held in the hand. A window glass may be easily sawed with a watch spring saw if this solution be used.
232. To Clean Tobacco Pipes.-Pour alcohol into the bowl and allow it to run out of the stem. This will thoroughly clean and sweeten the pipe.
233. To Petrify Wood.-Mix equal parts of rock alum, gem salt, white vinegar, chalk and peebles powder; after the ebullition has ceased throw any piece of wood or other porous substance into the solution and it will petrify.
234. To Remove Blood Stains.-Steep the article in lukewarm water. If pepsin is at hand apply it after first softening the spots in lukewarm water.
235. To Remove Tar, Wagon Grease, Mixtures of Fat, Carbon and Acetic Acid.-If the spots be on white goods apply soap and oil of turpentine, alternating with streams of water. If the spots are on colored cottons or woolens, rub in with lard; let it lie; soap; let lie; and proceed, alternating with oil of turpentine and water. Treat silks the same only use benzine in place of turpentine.
236. Black Ink, Copying or Writing Fluid.-Rain water, one gallon; brown sugar, one-eighth pound; gum arabic, one-eighth pound; powdered nut-galls, three-eighths pound; clean copperas, one-eighth pound; bruise and mix, then let stand for 10 days, shaking occasionally; strain. If not used as a copying ink but one-fourth of the sugar or gum is needed as it will then flow more freely. This ink is fine for records and deeds for it may be read hundreds of years hence.
DYEING AND COLORING. General Remarks.-Every article to be dyed should be perfectly clean. They should be washed thoroughly with soap and then rinsed. To prevent spotting, the goods should be dipped into warm water just before they are put into the various coloring preparations. After the article is dyed it should be aired awhile, then well rinsed and hung up to dry. Cotton goods should first be bleached if they are to be dyed a light color. Never wring silk or merino dresses. Use soft water and where the quantity is not mentioned enough should be used to well cover the goods.